Renal failure as well as CNS irritability and hepatic failure with hypoglycemia are the predominant symptoms of poisoning with Dioscorea species [23]. (2007). Nat. Air Potato Biological Control. The higher diosgenin contents and maximum biomass was obtained from the developed tuber-derived cell suspension culture of D. doryophora. View chapter Purchase book Metabolic Profiling and Potential Biomarkers of ShenYinXu Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effect of Liuweidihuang Wan In India, the plant grows wildly in Western Himalayas, Karnataka, Kashmir, West Bengal, etc. Biological Source . The mucopolysaccharide in D. batatas can significantly increase IFN-γ production in treated splenocytes, suggesting that it may induce cell-mediated immune responses (Choi et al., 2004). The diosgenin contents were analysed from the different plant parts (leaf, node, root, seed and stem) and higher level of diosgenin was obtained from the root (Table V). Dioscorea belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae, which are abundant in nature and distributed widely in the tropics. NISAW 2016 Air Potato Leaf Beetle a Biological Control for Air Potato UF/IFAS Extension Okaloosa County. Adapted from Wu, C.L., Lee, C.L., Pan, T.M., 2009. (N/A) … Studies were conducted in vitro to determine the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of Fusarium moniliforme isolated from rotted Dioscorea rotundata tubers. Around 15 species of Dioscorea are used as a source of diosgenin 20; with an estimated market value of $500 million 21. 5. The biological functions and various types of alkaloids are discussed hereunder. Descriptions of its tubers, indumentum, stems, leaves, male and female inflorescences, male and female flowers and capsules are also given. Saccharification proceeds under 0.3 MPa to DE 90–95.2817 In another procedure, pulp of Diascorea sativa was gelatinized at 90 °C with alpha amylase, saccharified with α-amyloglucosidase, and then fermented with yeast.2818, L. Zhou, ... Y. Peng, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. J.B. Adams, in Texture in Food: Solid Foods, 2004. nutrient values, Dioscorea is a potential source of bioactive substances of interest in the prevention/ treatment of several diseases, and thus represents a great challenge in developing countries. The crude drugs were made into honeyed pills (LW, SB, SX) according to the instructions recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2005 edn). A biological control feasibility study of the invasive weed-air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae): an effort to increase biological control transparency and safety. Dioscorin, a tuber protein, has been shown to exhibit systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory activities in vivo after oral administration (Liu et al., 2009). Reporting Frequency. More than 50 compounds of steroidal saponins from plants of Dioscorea L. have been isolated (Tang et al., 2007). (N/A) Project No. Globally, the largest areas planted in yam are all located in sub-Saharan Africa and include Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin and Togo. Dioscorea hispida is a plant whose tuber is used for food in the Tagalog provinces and other parts of the Philippines under the name nami. Sponsoring Institution. Most species contain steroid saponins and sapogenins, such as diosgenin, which is the starting material of industrial interest in the synthesis of many steroids that are on the market as anti-inflammatory, androgenic, estrogenic, and contraceptive drugs. 5), with a well-identified structure of 6-hydroxy-2,4,7-trimethoxyphenanthrene, was shown to inhibit the generation of prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4 and degranulation activity in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (Lu et al., 2011c). Several active components in tubers of D. batatas have been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory activities (Oh and Lim, 2009; Su et al., 2011b). Jayakodi et al. The closely related genus Tamus is included in Dioscorea by some sources,[9] but is maintained as distinct by others. Dioscorea polystachyacan form dense masses of vines that cover and kill native vegetation, including trees, within a variety of moist, disturbed habitats. Detoxification of the tubers involves placing them in running water for a few days, soaking in salt water, boiling for several hours and then squeezing out the juice, or roasting to detoxify them [23]. Moreover, RMD also exhibits higher angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity than RMR. However, “A” and “C” patterns have been reported for D. dumetorum starch. The three types of pills were then cut into pieces, immersed 10 times in methanol for an hour each time, and ultrasonically extracted three times for 40 min each. Of these, seven to ten are cultivated on a large scale2,3 and two (D. alata, D. cayennensis Lam. The leaves are spirally arranged, mostly broad heart-shaped. Thyroxine tablets were purchased from Shanghai Industrial United Holdings Great Wall Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd (Shanghai, China); reserpine injections were purchased from Guangdong Bangmin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd (Guangdong, China). Yam (Dioscorea species) is grown in 61 countries worldwide and is an important staple crop for sub-Saharan Africa and also commonly grown in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. The rhizomes have a high content of diosgenin, which is approximately 8% on dry basis (Li and Ni, 2011). Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright is the dominant source for diosgenin production in China. Dioscorins, the storage protein of D. batatas tuber, can enhance the proliferation of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ cells in spleen (Lin et al., 2009). (a, b) Different letters within a column indicate significant differences at P = 0.05 by Duncan’s multiple range test. About 10 species of yam are widely cultivated around the world, but three species (D. rotundata, D. alata, and D. cayenensis) account for 93% of the global yam production (Lopez-Montes et al., 2012). Some glycoproteins in D. batatas were shown to inhibit the expressions of IL-4 and IL-10 through modulation of GATA-3, STAT-6, p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK in mouse lymphocytes (Lin et al., 2009), leading to the possibility that glycoproteins in such plants may be usefully applied for use as nutraceuticals or health supplements for prevention of Th2-mediated immune disorders (Oh and Lim, 2009). Many of the tubers of Dioscorea are bitter in taste, and local people use traditional skills to remove bitterness. 6032-22000-011-51R Proposal No. Analysis by HPLC revealed that both microtuber- and stem node-derived suspension culture contained diosgenin. The two types of secondary metabolites are: (1) Alkaloids and (2) Dioscorea. 2 matches found for protodioscin . rotundata (Poir.) Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). subsp. PhD thesis KU Leuven. A callus is subsequently cut from the explant and subcultured further. Secondary Metabolites # 1. Geographical Source . It can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental conditions, but is most commonly found at the edges of rich, mesic bottomland forests, along stream banks and drainageways and near fencerows. From: Advances in Botanical Research, 2012, Martins Ekor, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. They are tuberous herbaceous perennial lianas, growing to 2–12 metres (6.6–39.4 ft) or more tall. Dioscorea species are widely used plants not only in Eastern traditional medicine but also in modern Western medicine. The flowers are individually inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with six petals; they are mostly dioecious, with separate male and female plants, though a few species are monoecious, with male and female flowers on the same plant. Table V. diosgenin content in callus obtained from Different Explants of Dioscorea are bitter in taste and... 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